4 language capacity for self-awareness and summary notion – dependent on language the capability to switch complicated records, to speak about the meaning of events and consequences of opportunity actions, to share emotions and ideas – not possible with out language. Thirteen code sender intentionally produces a sign for the recipient how can the recipient interpret the sign? Code – a hard and fast of symptoms, decided via convention, that offers the policies of interpretation all communique systems - codes. 21 transferability of medium: spoken and written primacy of the spoken language: ontogenetic (a child first learns to speak) filogenetic (writing evolved tons later in human history) social primacy of the written language in modern-day societies (better cultural prestige; technological know-how, schooling, law).
Sixteen language capabilities emotive (expressive)-expresses the speaker’s emotions (“what a wonder!??) referential – records approximately outside truth conative – making the recipient act in a particular manner (“open the window!??) phatic – organising touch (“hi there!??) poetic function – specializes in the message (carl sandburg: “the fog is available in on little cat ft”; metaphor) metalinguistic – specializes in the code “what’s the situation of this sentence???.